Cultural Resources

We work to preserve and protect all aspects of the Nooksack Indian Tribe’s Cultural Resources. We also help people understand that we are a historical Tribe of Whatcom County. Our ancestors set the rules we live by. It is our job to take care of this land through the ways that have been handed down to us, from generation to generation, so that we can make a better future for our children.


The Cultural Resources Department provides services within three areas of interest:


– Education: We help educate about our language, place names, songs and stories, traditional trades and skills.  We also heighten awareness about who we are with both Tribal and non-tribal communities. Lastly, we show the close relationship between Cultural Resources and Natural Resources.
– Regulatory: We assist with land development issues with all Federal, State, County, City, and private land owners to preserve and protect cultural resource sites, both past and present.
– Cultural Gatherings: We show support and participate in all Tribal gatherings throughout Indian Country. We also create and maintain a relationship with neighboring Tribes to strengthen our hold on our lands and waters.


We are located at 5016 Deming Road, PO Box 157, Deming, WA 98244, Phone: (360) 306-5759. Our hours of operation are Monday through Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. with limited services available from noon to 1 p.m.


Department Contacts
Director/Tribal Historic Preservation Officer: George D. Swanaset, Jr,
Office Assistant: Wachekiya Roberts,
Traditional Foods Program Manager: Sandra Joseph,
Assistant Tribal Historic Preservation Officer: Trevor Delgado,
Forestry/Cultural Specialist: Jeremiah Johnny,


Nooksack Place Names

By Allan Richardson, February 1, 2012


The names remembered and recorded for places in the original Nooksack language, Lhéchalosem, tie the modern Nooksack Indian people to their traditional lands.  Names are known for places throughout the Nooksack territory where the language was spoken, as well as in surrounding areas which were not exclusively Nooksack.  All of these place names are covered in detail in Nooksack Place Names: Geography, Culture and Language by Allan Richardson and Brent Galloway (UBC Press, 2011).  Below is a sample of a few of special interest with brief etymologies that are given in brackets.


T’elt’álaw7 – The place where the Nooksack River splits at the head of its delta.  [many arms]
Tl’eqx – California Creek.  [soggy all around]
Lhelhókw’ey – Wiser Lake.  [many-flying-place]
Ts’íkwemish – Bertrand Creek and village site at the mouth of Bertrand Creek.
Méqsen – Village known as “Stick Peter’s place”, Matsqui Indian Reserve #4.  [nose]
Sqwehálich – Village on the south bank of the Nooksack River across from Lynden on Stickney Island, Lynden Jim’s place.  [go through an opening-at back]
Lhchálos – Village at the east edge of the old part of Lynden. The name is the source of the language name Lhéchalosem.
Shóqwil – Trail crossing, fishing site with drying houses, and small prairie area on Fishtrap Creek just south of the international boundary near Northwood Road.  [crossing (of water)]
Kwánech – Village located at Everson.  [lots-at the bottom]
Temíxwten – Nooksack village with pit houses at Sumas, WA.  [earth-device]
Semáts Xácho7 – Sumas Lake.  [level place lake]
Nuxwsá7aq – Anderson Creek and the area at the mouth of Anderson Creek.  This place name is the source of the tribal name Nooksack.  [always-bracken fern roots]
Spálhxen – Village on Johnson Island opposite the mouth of Anderson Creek.  [prairie, meadow, open land]
Yexsáy – Smith Creek and village at the mouth of Smith Creek.  [place given as a gift]
Leme7ólh – Fishing rocks on the east bank of the Nooksack River ½ mile upriver from Deming.  [kicked (away) long ago]
Nuxw7íyem – South Fork Nooksack River and village at mouth of South Fork.  [always-clear water]
Nuxwt’íqw’em – Middle Fork Nooksack River and village located at its mouth.  [always-murky water]
Chuw7álich – North Fork Nooksack River.  [the next point]
Xwkw’ól7oxwey – Kendall Creek and village at the mouth of Kendall Creek. [always-dog salmon-place]
Kwelshán – The high open slopes of Mt. Baker.  [shooting place]
Kweq’ Smánit – Mt. Baker.  [white mountain]
Shéqsan ~ Ch’ésqen – Mt. Shuksan.  [high foot ~ golden eagle]
Ts’éq – Creek and fish camp at Acme.  [fermented salmon eggs]
xwaymaltxw – Camp at mouth of Skookum Creek on South Fork.  [slaughter-house]
Yúmechiy – Canyon in the South Fork where spring Chinook salmon were caught.  [spring salmon-place]
Kwetl’kwítl’ Smánit – Twin Sisters Mountain.  [red mountain]
Xachu7ámish – Village at the upper, southeast end of Lake Whatcom.  [lake people]
Ch’ínukw’ – Toad Lake.  [thunderbird]
Xalachiséy – Squalicum Lake.  [mark on the hand place]
Chúkwenet – Chuckanut Creek and camp located at the mouth of Chuckanut Creek.  [beach or tide goes way out]
Xwótqwem – Whatcom Creek and camp at mouth of Whatcom Creek.  [sound of water splashing or dripping fast and hard]
Nuxwkw’ól7exwem – Squalicum Creek.  [always-dog salmon-place to get]
Tl’aqatínus – Prairie and bluff at Fort Bellingham.  [long bluff]
Nuxws7áxwom – Cherry Point.  [place to always get butter clams]
Shkw’em – Camp location on Birch Bay at mouth of Terrell Creek, and Terrell Creek.  [swim]

12 hours ago

Nooksack Indian Tribe Communications Page

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